Cycle: Bosses repeat their attack patterns and vulnerability phases in "cycles." The goal is to reduce the number of cycles as low as possible, to complete the fight as fast as possible. To 1-cycle a boss is to defeat the boss within its first cycle.
Damage-Boost: When you are hurt by an attack, your character obtains a few moments of invincibility. Sometimes rather than taking the intended safe pathway, it's faster to just damage-boost through attacks or other damaging obstacles in order to reach your goal. It's also a strategy to get hit by a 1-damage attack to get past obstacles that do a lot of damage, such as spikes (3 damage) and lasers (4 damage).
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